Aftershock: Small shocks/quakes/tremors after the main earthquake.
Ash & cinder volcano: A volcano made up of layers of ash and cinder from successive eruptions.
Caldera: The crater left after a volcano has collapsed in on itself.
Collision plate boundary: Two similar tectonic plates colliding and buckling up to form fold mountains.
Composite volcano: A classically shaped volcano created from alternate layers of lava & ash eruptions.
Conservative plate boundary: Two tectonic plates sliding past each other.
Constructive plate boundary: Two tectonic plates (oceanic) moving apart from each other.
Convection currents: Circular currents in the mantle created by the heat of the core.
Core: Iron & nickel centre of the earth.
Crust: The outer (& thinnest) layer of the earth.
Destructive plate boundary: The collision of a continental and an oceanic tectonic plate. The oceanic plate is sub ducted due to being denser. Creates Fold Mountains, volcanoes and ocean trenches.
Dome volcano: Steep sided volcano formed from eruptions of acid /basic lava.
Epicentre: The point on the earth’s surface directly above the focus.
Fissure volcano: A volcano that run along a constructive plate boundary (Mid-Atlantic ridge).
Focus: The actual point at which the earthquake occurred.
Fumaroles: Secondary vents or openings on a volcano.
Hot spot: A point of weakness in a tectonic plate where magma bursts to the surface (not on a plate boundary).
Lava: Molten rock on the earths surface.
Magma: Molten rock still underground.
Magma chamber: The storage of magma in or below the crust.
Mantle: The layer of molten rock below the crust.
Mercalli scale: A scale that measures the damage caused by an earthquake.
Pyroclastic flow: A very hot cloud of gas, ash and cinder that races down the side of a volcano.
Richter scale: A scale that measures the energy released (magnitude) of an earthquake.
Seismic waves: The shockwaves produced by an earthquake.
Seismograph: The graph drawn by a seismometer showing the magnitude of the vibrations.
Seismologist: A person who studies earthquakes.
Seismometer: A instrument that measures vibrations in the earth’s crust.
Shield volcano: A wide, gentle sloping volcano created through eruption of basaltic lava.
Subduction zone: At a destructive plate boundary the area where the oceanic plate has gone under the continental plate and is melting.
Tectonic plate: A section of the earth’s crust.
Tsunami: A tidal wave typically created by earthquakes under the ocean.
Vent: The passage through which magma travels to the surface of the crust.
Volcano: A mountain formed by eruptions of lava/ash.
Arch: The feature created in coastal headland when erosion wears a cave completely through the rock.
Backwash: The wave retreating back from the beach
Beach nourishment: Replenishing beaches with sand brought from other places.
Cave: Hollowed out feature formed in a cliff/headland by coastal erosion.
Constructive wave: A wave with a strong swash that deposits more material than it removes.
Destructive wave: A wave with a strong backwash which removes more material than it deposits.
Fault: A crack or line of weakness in the rock or cliff.
Fetch: The distance of ocean that has had the wind blowing on it.
Gabion: A wire cage filled with rocks that absorbs the waves energy and helps protect cliffs from further erosion.
Groyne: Wooden structures (small walls) constructed on beaches to reduce long shore drift.
Long shore drift: The movement of material along a coast line.
Riprap: Artificial rock made of concrete placed along coasts to absorb the waves energy & reduce erosion.
Seawall: A concrete wall built at the back of a beach to protect the cliffs or development there.
Spit: A strip of beach extending into the sea, created by deposition.
Stack: The feature left when the bridge of an arch collapses.
Stump: The feature left when a stack is eroded at the base and collapses.
Swash: The motion of the wave coming up the beach.
Drainage basin: The total area of land drained by a river system.
Source: The start of a river.
Tributary: A smaller stream/river that joins a larger one.
Confluence: The meeting point of two rivers.
Waterfall: The point at which a river flows over a vertical drop.
Watershed: The outer limit of a drainage basin.
Floodplain: An area of deposited material in the lower course of the drainage basin along side the river that is naturally prone to flooding.
Gorge: Steep sided narrow river valley through rock.
Meander: Natural bends in river created by erosion.
Oxbow lake: A section of a river that is isolated when meanders joing up.
Levee: Barrier/wall built to protect against flooding.
Embankment: Man-made ridge (often earthen) to protect against flooding.
Delta: Area of deposition at the mouth of a river.
Discharge: velocity x volume, measured in cumecs (cubic metres/second).
Distributaries: Smaller rivers flowing from the main river, associated with deltas.
Evaporation: water turning into vapour due to heat.
Transpiration: water vapour given off by plants/trees.
Condensation: water vapour turning back into water due to cooling temperatures.
Precipitation: Water returning to earth from the atmosphere (rain, snow, hail, sleet).
Infiltration: Water soaking into the soil.
Percolation: Water soaking through the rocks below the soil.
Groundwater: Water stored in the rocks deep underground.
Through flow: Water flowing sideways through the soil layers.
Surface run-off: water flowing along the surface of the ground (not soaking in).
Interception: Precipitation that does not reach the ground due to obstacles (trees etc).
Evapotranspiration: The total water vapour released into the atmosphere (evaporation + transpiration).
Erosion: The wearing away of rocks and soil.
Abrasion: Stones and rocks scraping & wearing away material.
Hydraulic action: The physical force of the water wearing away the material.
Attrition: Stones/rocks carried in the water hitting & wearing away material.
Corrosion: Acid in the water dissolves rocks.
Transportation: The movement of material form one point to another.
Traction: The rolling of larger stones and rocks by the power of water in rivers.
Saltation: The bouncing of stones and rocks by the power of water in rivers.
Suspension: Smaller material in rivers that is carried along in the flow.
Solution: The dissolved material that rivers transport.
Deposition: The material that is left behind by water/ice/wind after it has been transported.
Birth rate: Number of births in a country in a year per 1000 of population.
Death rate: No of deaths in a country in a year per 1000 of population.
Demographic transition model: A model showing the expected changes in birth rate, death rate and population growth as a country develops.
Demography: The study of population.
Dependency ratio Ratio: between the economically active population (16-45) & the dependent population.
Dependent population: The non economically active sectors of the population (under 16 & 65+).
Emigration: People leaving the country to live in another one.
Immigration: People moving into a country to live.
Infant mortality: average number of deaths of children under 1 year old per 1000 births.
Life expectancy: Average age a person could be expected to reach in a country.
Literacy rate: % of population able to read & write.
Migration: The movement of people/animals on a medium to long term basis.
Old dependent: Sector of population over 65 years old.
Population pyramid: A pyramid graph that shows the age and sex make up of a countries population.
Pull factor: Reasons why people move to a place (attractions).
Push factor: Reasons why people leave a place (bad aspects).
Rural-urban migration: Movement of people from the countryside to towns & cities to live.
Young dependent: Sector of population under 16 years old.
Aid: Help given to poorer countries or those in need after a disaster.
Bilateral aid: Aid between 2 countries.
Brownfield site: Land that has previously been built on.
Employment structure: The proportion of primary, secondary and tertiary sectors in an economy.
GDP: Gross Domestic Product. The total value of all the goods & services produced in a country.
Globalisation: The increasingly worldwide nature of travel, communication and trade.
GNP: Gross National Product. GDP + foreign earnings.
Infrastructure: The basic man made facilities that allow countries to function effectively (communication, transportation, power, clean water).
LEDC: Less Economically Developed Country
Long term aid: Aid intended to improve living conditions and quality of life such as training/education.
MEDC: More Economically Developed Country
Multi lateral aid: Aid given by a number of countries (e.g. through the world bank).
NGO: Non Governmental Organisation.
NIC: Newly Industrialised Country.
Primary industry: The extraction or collection of natural resources.
Quaternary industry: Industries that are based on research and development.
Secondary industry: Manufacturing or construction.
Short term aid: Aid intended to deal with an emergency such as food, water and medical supplies.
Tertiary industry: Industries that provide a service.
Tied aid: Aid that has conditions attached to it.
TNC Trans National Company: A company with branches in more that one country.
Anemometer: Instrument for measuring the wind speed. Reading given in miles of km/hour.
Anticyclone: A high pressure weather system associated with stable sunny conditions.
Barometer: Instrument for measuring the air pressure. Reading given in milibars.
Climate: The average longer term weather conditions of a place.
Convectional rainfall: Rain caused by the sun heating the ground which heats the air causing it to rise & condense.
Depression: A low pressure weather system associated with rainy, windy weather.
Frontal rainfall: Rain caused by two air masses of differing temperatures meeting & the warmer air rising over the cooler air.
Hurricane: Low pressure extreme weather system with high winds and significant rainfall.
Hygrometer: Instrument for measuring humidity.
Micro-climate: Localised climate that is affected by environmental features such as buildings.
Rain Guage: Instrument used to collect and measure rainfall. Reading given in mm.
Relief rainfall: Rain caused by air masses having to rise above an obstacle such as a mountain range.
Thermometer: Instrument for measuring the temperature. Reading given in oC or oF.
Weather: The short term conditions of the atmosphere around us.
Weather Vane: Instrument for measuring the wind direction.
Arable farming: The growing of crops.
Commercial farming: Farming to sell produce.
Diversification: Branching into new economic activities to supplement original farming.
Extensive farming: Farming on a large area of low value land that requires few inputs.
Fertiliser: Nutritional additive for soil to improve crops.
Green revolution: Use of cereal & rice HYVs (high yield varieties) to improve yields and better resist drought & disease.
Intensive farming: Farming on a small area of land that requires a lot of inputs to maximise the output.
Irrigation: Watering system for crops/arable farming.
Market gardening: Growing of fruit and vegetables, usually in an intensive fashion.
Mixed farming: A combination of arable and pastoral.
Pastoral farming: Caring for animals/livestock.
Subsistence farming: Farming for own needs, with nothing (or very little) left for selling.
Brownfield site: Land that has previously been built on.
CBD: Central Business District: The central area of an urban area that hosts the commercial sector.
Commuter: Person who travels to reach place of work.
Counter-urbanisation: The movement of people out of urban areas to the countryside to live.
Detached house: Houses that are completely seperated from the next house.
Dispersed settlement: Scattered and isolated dwellings, farm houses.
Favela: see shanty town.
Greenbelt: Area of land surrounding major urban areas in which development is severly restricted.
Greenfield site: Land that has not previously been developed, still agricultural or wild.
Informal job sector: Jobs which are not officially recognised, pay no tax and have no security such as shoe shine.
Inner city: The area surroundng the CBD, consisting of terraced housing, old industry and high rise housing.
Linear settlement: Settlement built in a line, often along a transport route.
Nucleated settlement: Settlement that is clustered, often around the junction of transport routes.
Rural-urban fringe: The area at which the city edges meet the countryside.
Semi-detached house: Houses joined to another house only on one side.
Shanty town: illegal squatter settlement with limited (if any) infrastructure.
Site: The actual area on which a settlement or building is located.
Situation: The area/environment surrounding the site.
Suburbs: Area surrounding the inner city, often more affluent.
Terraced housing: Rows of houses with no gaps between the houses.
Urbanisation: An increase in the % of people living in urban areas.