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Urban Environments

Resources, activities, links & videos for IB Geography; Urban Environments unit. Revision pages in the store now.

IB Geography, urban environments shanty town, kigali, Rwanda

Read this article for an introduction to the unit: megacities. Published by http://www.yearofplanetearth.org/

Urbanisation: An increase in the % of a countries population living in towns & cities.

Inward movements of people (centripetal movement)

Rural - urban migration: what? push & pull factors. Case Study.

Gentrification: what? Why? Case Study - London Docklands.

Re-urbanisation: what? why? Example.

Outward Movements of people (centrifugal movement)

Suburbanisation: The growth of towns & cities to include (engulf) surrounding villages/ rural areas.

Urban Sprawl: Unplanned & uncontrolled spread/growth of a city into the surrounding rural area.

Counter-urbannisation: The movement of population away from inner urban areas to a new town, a new estate, a commuter town or a village on the edge or just beyond the city limits/rural–urban fringe.

Counter-urbanisation: what & why? Push & Pull factors.

Natural change

Impact of natural increase in urban areas on population densities & distribution.

Global Megacities: cities with a population over 10 million.

Mega-city Growth interactive diagram (Guardian 2012)

.Where and why have these cities been rapidly increasing in number? What are some of the problems that they are facing?

Growth of modern cities (podcast) 2011

IB Geography urban environments San Jose, Cosat Rica

Urban Land Use

1a) Concentric Zone Model - Burgess, 1924.

1b) Hoyt Sector Model

1c) Ulman & Harris - Multiple Nuclei Model

Identify zones within this model & the characteristics of them.

Assumptions & limitations of the model.

2a) Discuss to what extent San Jose fits the urban land use models [6]

2b) What are the limitations of the models in applying them to modern cities? [5]

3) CBD Core -periphery model

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Newcastle (UK) City Centre Land Use

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3) Brownfield sites: definition. Read factfile - UK brownfield sites

What are brownfield sites? Why are they often more expensive to develop?

UK brownfield development issues (2001)

London Olympic Park: Reda the following articles and make notes about the site of the olympic park - where, clean-up required, beenfeits to the area: pdf article, olympic site.

4) Greenfield sites - what & issues surrounding their development.

IB Geography London docklands

LEDC City problems & solutions - favelas/slums

CASE STUDY: Rocinha favela, Rio de Janeiro

Go this page: Rio Case Studies

Make notes about the favela in Rio -

  • What are they?
  • Where are they?
  • Why do people live in them?
  • What services do they have?
  • What rights do they get/have?
  • What sense of community is there?
  • How the authorities cope with them?

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Interactive Map of Multi-Plaza, San Jose, Costa Rica

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Urban Microclimates & urban heat islands

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San Jose Ring Road to reduce traffic congestion in the city

Beijing Smog

Beijing Rubbish dumps

Nigeria & its land reclamation- make notes.

Bangladesh &health care issues resulting from urbanisation - make notes

 

The City a System

The city as a system Describe the city as a system in terms of:
• inputs—energy, water, people, materials, products, food (urban agriculture)
• outputs—solid, atmospheric and liquid waste, noise, people.
Distinguish between a sustainable circular system where inputs are reduced and outputs are recycled and an
unsustainable (open/linear) city system with uncontrolled inputs and outputs.

IB Geography, urban environments, linear city systems

IB Geography, urban environments, circular city system

 

Sustainable Cities

In your groups research & present back a powerpoint or movie Case Study.

It should be no longer than 5 minutes, .
Curitiba (Brasil), Calgary (Canada) - examples of sustainanble measures introduced & further plans.
• The Urban Ecological Footprint - what is it, how is it measured, how can cities reduce it etc.

Urban ecological footrprint webpage (just to get you started).

 

China's eco-cities: Sustainable urban living in Tianjin (BBC 2012)

Rooftop Gardens, New York (Guardian 2011)

Brasilia (Guardian 2011)

What makes a sustainable city (Guardian 2012)

Dubai & human waste recycling (BBC 2013)

 

Sustainable construction methods: London Olympics

IB Geography, Mwanza skyline, urban environments
 

Sustainable Strategies Case Studies

You have to have a case study & be able to evaluate it for the following strategies (for urban areas):

  • Socially sustainable housing management
  • Environmentally sustainable pollution management
  • One strategy to control rapid city growth resultingfrom in migration.

Environmentally Sustainable Pollution Management

Londons Electric Cars (Guardian 2011)

 
 

 

CASE STUDY: Socially Sustainable Housing: Singapore HBD

P.450/1 Waugh - notes about:

  • Existing problems
  • What is the HDB & what has it done.
  • In what ways are the projects socially sustainable?

CASE STUDY: Urban Regeneration:

London Docklands urban regeneration

good infromation/CASE STUDY here

CASE STUDY: Thames Gateway

Thames Gateway

Eco-cities

Tianjin Eco-City: BBC video & BBC article (watch & read & make notes about its aim, some of the problems it faces,

the challenges of affordability and sustainability

Eco-City examples (videos)

Past paper Q

 

 

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