Read this article for an introduction to the unit: megacities. Published by http://www.yearofplanetearth.org/
An increase in the % of a countries population living in towns & cities.
Rural to Urban Migration
You should be able to explain the push and pull factors & add extra factors such as remittance payments.
Gentrification & Re-Urbanisation
Inward movements of people (centripetal movement)
Outward Movements of people (centrifugal movement)
The growth of towns & cities to include (engulf) surrounding villages/ rural areas.
Unplanned & uncontrolled spread/growth of a city into the surrounding rural area.
The movement of population away from inner urban areas to a new town, a new estate, a commuter town or a village on the edge or just beyond the city limits/rural–urban fringe.
Impact of natural increase in urban areas on population densities & distribution.
Global Megacities: cities with a population over 10 million.
Mega-city Growth interactive diagram (Guardian 2012)
Where and why have these cities been rapidly increasing in number? What are some of the problems that they are facing?
Growth of modern cities (podcast) 2011
Concentric Ring Model: Burgess
You should be able to explain the pattern shown in the model and identify its weaknesses.
Sector Model: Hoyt
CBD Core -periphery model
Newcastle (UK) City Centre Land Use
Read factfile - UK brownfield sites
What are brownfield sites? Why are they often more expensive to develop?
LEDC City problems & solutions - favelas/slums
CASE STUDY: Rocinha favela, Rio de Janeiro
Go this page: Rio Case Studies
Make notes about the favela in Rio -
- What are they?
- Where are they?
- Why do people live in them?
- What services do they have?
- What rights do they get/have?
- What sense of community is there?
- How the authorities cope with them?
Urban Microclimates & urban heat islands
Nigeria & its land reclamation- make notes.
The City a System
The city as a system Describe the city as a system in terms of:
• inputs—energy, water, people, materials, products, food (urban agriculture)
• outputs—solid, atmospheric and liquid waste, noise, people.
Distinguish between a sustainable circular system where inputs are reduced and outputs are recycled and an
unsustainable (open/linear) city system with uncontrolled inputs and outputs.
In your groups research & present back a powerpoint or movie Case Study.
It should be no longer than 5 minutes, .
• Curitiba (Brasil), Calgary (Canada) - examples of sustainanble measures introduced & further plans.
• The Urban Ecological Footprint - what is it, how is it measured, how can cities reduce it etc.
Urban ecological footrprint webpage (just to get you started).
Rooftop Gardens, New York (Guardian 2011)
Brasilia (Guardian 2011)
What makes a sustainable city (Guardian 2012)
Dubai & human waste recycling (BBC 2013)
Sustainable construction methods: London Olympics
Sustainable Strategies Case Studies
You have to have a case study & be able to evaluate it for the following strategies (for urban areas):
- Socially sustainable housing management
- Environmentally sustainable pollution management
- One strategy to control rapid city growth resultingfrom in migration.
Environmentally Sustainable Pollution Management
CASE STUDY: Londons Congestion Charging Zone
Has the congestion charge been a success?
Excellent graphics here for some of the successes
Londons Electric Cars (Guardian 2011)
CASE STUDY: Socially Sustainable Housing: Singapore HBD
P.450/1 Waugh - notes about:
- Existing problems
- What is the HDB & what has it done.
- In what ways are the projects socially sustainable?
CASE STUDY: Urban Regeneration:
London Docklands urban regeneration
CASE STUDY: Thames Gateway
the challenges of affordability and sustainability
Eco-City examples (videos)